The results of recent research reveal the current environmental situation of the global biomass supply chain via maritime transportation and suggest managerial strategies for low cost and low carbon fuels technologies

Despite many efforts, a global energy crisis has arisen in recent decades due to several reasons, e.g., the risk of fossil-fuel depletion and numerous adverse effects exerted on the environment because of the non-renewable energy generation.

This has led scientists and practitioners to explore sustainable energy alternatives with the capacity of satisfying the rising demand for energy. Biomass, which is the organic material stored in animals/plants, has been extensively used as an alternative source of energy. generation of biomass fuel at the global level has roughly tripled in the past ten years; for example, it has surged from 2.78 million tonnes in 2006 to 8.2 million tonnes in 2016. Such a situation has encouraged practitioners to renovate bioenergy products, e.g., crude palm oil.

Biomass utilization can exert a global effect along the worldwide supply chain via international trade, which gives support to the generation of bioenergy-based products and all other commodities in the environmental and economic network. Adopting alternative fuels will require close cooperation throughout supply chains between shipowners, operators, ports, fuel producers and distributors, and legislators. In this line, the environmental and economic requirements can have considerable effects on the future biomass trade in the global market.

Post Doctoral Researcher
Saeed Rahimpour

We developed a dynamic full-scale synergy model to assess cost-mass flow and energy-related particulate matter emissions and air pollutants for maritime transportation of the global crude palm oil biomass supply chain. We have analyzed a total of 93 sea routes from Malaysia and Indonesia to main export markets in the US, Europe, and Asia.

Our results contribute to increasing port industry stakeholders’ understanding of the current environmental situation and assist them in developing appropriate energy policies and managerial strategies for low cost and low carbon fuels technologies.


This joint research has been done between LUT University and RMIT University.
Viipuri Management Research Lab of LUT University provided access to AnyLogic (University 8.5.0) software for simulation modeling.


Global biomass supply chain,crude palm oil, Maritime transportation, Export market, Transportation cost, Environmental emissions

Zahraee, S.M, Rahimpour Golroudbary, S., Shiwakotia, N. & Stasinopoulos, P. 2021. Particle-Gaseous pollutant emissions and cost of global biomass supply chain via maritime transportation: Full-scale synergy model Applied Energy Volume 303.